What is a panic attack?
Panic attack symptoms can strike at any time. They come on very rapidly and usually peak within a few minutes. Symptoms often include:
- increased heart rate
- chest pain
- shortness of breath
- nausea or pain in the stomach
- dizziness, feeling lightheaded or faint
- numbness or tingling
- depersonalisation (feeling detached from yourself or your surroundings)
- hot or cold flushes
- fear of dying
- sense of impending doom or danger.
What causes a panic attack?
Panic attacks are very common, with up to 40% of Australians experiencing a panic attack at some stage in their life. During a panic episode, someone is overwhelmed and disabled by the physical symptoms listed above. The panic reaches its peak after about 10 minutes and can take up to half an hour to subside. A panic episode leaves the person feeling temporarily exhausted and drained. While common and debilitating, panic attacks are distinct from but a feature of panic disorder.
Panic attacks can be caused by:
- chronic, persistent stress
- a temperament that is sensitive to stress or negative emotions
- changes in the way your brain functions.
Treating and preventing panic attacks
There are self-help, psychological and medical options available to treat and avoid panic attacks. Panic is associated with anxiety and the treatments are similar. During a panic attack:
- Avoid ‘self-talk’ that focuses your attention on your symptoms – don’t tell yourself to ‘stop panicking!’
- Reassure yourself that the symptoms of a panic attack are uncomfortable but not life threatening.
- Focus your attention on something outside your own body and symptoms. For example, try to recall the words to your favourite song or concentrate on the sights and sounds around you.
- Fleeing from the situation will confirm your fear that your panic symptoms are unbearable. Try to sit and allow the symptoms to pass and get confidence in your ability to cope.
Last reviewed: August 2017