A large proportion of people do not know they are infected with HIV. Knowledge of ones own HIV serostatus is necessary to access HIV support, care and treatment and to prevent acquisition or further transmission of HIV. Patients often need to return to the testing site to receive HIV test results and post-test counselling one to two weeks later after being tested. Frequently, people do not return for their HIV test results, particularly in developing countries. In this setting, barriers such as lack of money, transportation or stigma attached to HIV positive serostatus prevent people from collecting their HIV test results. However, the HIV test results could also be delivered by a single phone call, either by a fixed line or a mobile phone. Given the recent rise in mobile phone use in both developed and developing countries, telephone HIV test result notification could be an effective and feasible method for increasing the number of people receiving HIV test results. The aim of this review was to assess effectiveness of the telephone for HIV test result delivery, compared with face-to-face or other methods of HIV test result notification. After a comprehensive search of various scientific databases and other resources, we found only one relevant study. This study was performed in 1998-1999 in the United States on high-risk and homeless youth. The participants were offered an HIV test and told that their HIV test results would be available in two weeks. They were then divided into two groups; one that had to return to the testing site to get their HIV test results, and another that had the option of receiving HIV test results either by telephone or face-to-face at the testing site. Overall, less than half of participants received their HIV test results. Most participants in the telephone notification group opted for telephone rather than in person delivery of HIV test results.The proportion of youth receiving their HIV test results in the telephone group was significantly higher compared to the face-to-face group. However, since none of the participants in the telephone group were HIV positive, the study could not provide information about the effectiveness of telephone HIV test result delivery in people with HIV. In addition, we could not find any information about other relevant outcomes such as participants and providers satisfaction with the telephone HIV test results delivery, cost or potential harmful effects of this intervention. We urgently need more studies conducted in various settings comparing the effectiveness of telephone to other ways of HIV test result delivery and providing other relevant information in addition to the proportion of people receiving their HIV test results.