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Diabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels become too high.

Diabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels become too high.
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Diabetes types

There are three main types of diabetes:

Diabetes type 1

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease where the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin and require lifelong insulin replacement for survival.

The disease can occur at any age, although it mostly occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes is sometimes referred to as 'juvenile onset diabetes' or 'insulin dependent diabetes'.

Personal story: diabetes mellitus type 1

Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be both emotionally and practically challenging. Listening to others who have experienced similar situations is often re-assuring and can be helpful for you, your loved ones or when preparing questions for your doctor or a specialist.

Watch this video about a patient's experience after being diagnosed with diabetes type 1.


Read the related video transcript >

More information about this video >
 

Diabetes type 2

Type 2 diabetes is associated with hereditary factors and lifestyle risk factors including poor diet, insufficient physical activity and being overweight or obese.

People with type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their condition through lifestyle changes; however, diabetes medications or insulin replacement may also be required to control blood sugar levels.

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years old; however, the disease is also becoming increasingly prevalent in younger age groups.

Personal story: diabetes mellitus type 2

Watch this video about a patient's experience after being diagnosed with diabetes type 2.


Read the related video transcript >

More information about this video >

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy. The condition usually disappears once the baby is born; however, a history of gestational diabetes increases a woman's risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

The condition may be managed through adopting healthy dietary and exercise habits, although diabetes medication, including insulin, may also be required to manage blood sugar levels.

Monitoring

While the majority of people with diabetes do not need finger prick monitoring, those taking insulin or in other special circumstances may need to do so. The Australian College of Nursing recommends people with diabetes who need to monitor their glucose levels self-manage their own blood glucose monitoring whenever possible. For more information, speak to your doctor or visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website.

For more information on pre-existing diabetes and pregnancy and gestational diabetes, visit Pregnancy, Birth and Baby.

If you are concerned you may have diabetes please see your doctor.

Copyright: ©2013 University of Oxford. Used under licence from DIPEx. All rights reserved.

Last reviewed: September 2016

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Everyday illness or infections will nearly always cause a rise in blood glucose levels whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Therefore, at the earliest sign of any form of illness such as a cold or virus, it is important for you to take action.

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sick days & type 1 diabetes

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Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin

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Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas

Read more on Diabetes Australia website

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