Healthdirect Free Australian health advice you can count on.

Medical problem? Call 1800 022 222. If you need urgent medical help, call triple zero immediately

healthdirect Australia is a free service where you can talk to a nurse or doctor who can help you know what to do.

Man testing his blood glucose level with a glucometer.

Man testing his blood glucose level with a glucometer.
beginning of content

Type 1 diabetes

4-minute read

Diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body cannot maintain healthy levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes develops when the body does not make enough insulin or does not use it well. Type 1 diabetes is diabetes caused by the immune system attacking and destroying the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.

Although there is currently no cure, type 1 diabetes can be managed with insulin and by having a healthy lifestyle.

What is type 1 diabetes?

The pancreas is an organ below and behind the stomach that produces the hormone insulin. Insulin moves glucose into the cells to be stored and used for energy.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. Without insulin, glucose stays in the blood, causing the blood glucose level to be higher than normal. This then causes the problems associated with diabetes.

What causes type 1 diabetes?

The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not known. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system attacks the pancreas cells. It cannot be prevented, even by adopting a healthy lifestyle.

The risk of type 1 diabetes can be passed down through families. If you have a parent, brother or sister with type 1 diabetes, you have a higher chance of developing type 1 than someone who is not related to a person who has the condition.

The onset of type 1 diabetes occurs most frequently in people under 30 years, however almost half of all people who develop the condition are diagnosed over the age of 30.

Type 1 diabetes symptoms

If you have high blood glucose, you may experience the following symptoms of type 1 diabetes, which you can remember with the four 'Ts':

  • thirst - being very thirsty (and possibly hungry)
  • toilet - urinating more often
  • thinner - experiencing unexplained weight loss
  • tired - feeling unusually tired

Diabetic ketoacidosis symptoms

If your blood glucose is very high, you may experience a serious emergency condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In diabetic ketoacidosis, your body burns fat instead of glucose for energy, producing by-products called ketones.

Symptoms include:

  • fast breathing
  • breath that smells like nail polish remover
  • stomach pain
  • flushed cheeks
  • vomiting
  • dehydration

DKA is a serious condition that requires immediate assessment. If someone, who you know has diabetes, becomes confused or unconscious, call triple zero (000) for an ambulance.

Type 1 diabetes diagnosis

If your doctor thinks you may have diabetes, you will probably need to have a blood test. You may be asked to take a fasting blood glucose test, where you don’t eat for 8 hours prior to the test, or a random blood glucose test, where you don’t need to fast. You may also need to have an oral glucose tolerance test where you have blood glucose tests after you drink a sugary drink.

You may also be asked to have your urine tested for ketones.

Type 1 diabetes complications

Treating type 1 diabetes is important to prevent long-term complications, such as:

Type 1 diabetes treatments

If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need insulin replacement, through injections or an insulin pump, to control your blood glucose levels. Having a healthy diet and being physically active can also help control your blood glucose levels and improve your health.

Living with type 1 diabetes

Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be overwhelming. However, besides using insulin treatment, you can successfully manage diabetes by:

  • learning to control and monitor your blood glucose levels
  • following a healthy diet and being physically active
  • having regular health checks by your doctor, including blood pressure and kidney function
  • having a podiatrist monitor your feet for ulcers and other problems
  • having an optometrist or ophthalmologist check your eye health regularly

You can join the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) to access support services, including free or subsidised products. Visit Diabetes Australia for information and resources.

Last reviewed: July 2018

Need more information?

These trusted information partners have more on this topic.

Top results

Type 1 diabetes | symptoms of type 1 diabetes | NSW

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, managed with insulin injections, that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to produce the insulin needed.

Read more on Diabetes NSW website

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes) information | myVMC

Type 1 diabetes mellitus usually develops before 20 years of age. It is treated with insulin injections to regulate blood glucose levels.

Read more on myVMC – Virtual Medical Centre website

sick days & type 1 diabetes

Everyday illnesses or infection will nearly always cause a rise in blood glucose levels when you have type 1 diabetes. Therefore, at the earliest sign of any form of illness such as a cold or virus, it is important to follow your personalised sick day management plan. Be prepared before you get sick! It is essential to discuss and prepare a sick day management plan with your diabetes team.

Read more on ACI - Agency for Clinical Innovation website

Diabetes type 1 - Better Health Channel

Type 1 diabetes can affect anyone of any age, but is more common in people under 30 years.

Read more on Better Health Channel website

Pregnancy - Diabetes NSW - Live your life

For a woman with type 1 diabetes, pre-pregnancy planning is crucial in ensuring the best possible outcome for her and her child.

Read more on Diabetes NSW website

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin

Read more on Diabetes Australia website

Type-1 | Diabetes Victoria

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin

Read more on Diabetes Australia Victoria website

Type 1 diabetes - myDr.com.au

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and destroys them.

Read more on myDr website

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the pancreas does not produce insulin because the cells which make insulin have been destroyed by the immune system.

Read more on WA Health website

Type 1 diabetes- a childs experience

Living with type 1 diabetes can be challenging for children and their family, however with a diabetic diet and treatment, diabetic children can lead relatively normal lives.

Read more on myVMC – Virtual Medical Centre website

Healthdirect 24hr 7 days a week hotline

24 hour health advice you can count on

1800 022 222

Government Accredited with over 140 information partners

We are a government-funded service, providing quality, approved health information and advice

Australian Government, health department logo ACT Government logo New South Wales government, health department logo Northen Territory Government logo Government of South Australia, health department logo Tasmanian government logo Government of Western Australia, health department logo