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Long COVID and post-COVID symptoms

8-minute read

If you develop symptoms such as severe shortness of breath or chest pain, call triple zero (000) immediately. Tell the phone operator and the paramedics on arrival if you have COVID-19.

Quick read

Long COVID is where symptoms of COVID-19 remain, or develop long after your acute illness, and can last for weeks or sometimes months.

What can I expect while recovering from COVID-19?

Everyone will have a different experience in their recovery from COVID-19. Some people may recover in days or weeks. But in some people, recovery may take months. Although each case is unique, people recovering from more severe symptoms are likely to face a longer recovery period.

Schedule regular appointments with your GP to discuss your symptoms and how best to manage them. Your GP will tell you about any medicines that might suit your needs.

Symptoms recovering from COVID-19

Some common symptoms you may experience during your recovery:

  • fatigue
  • cough
  • breathlessness
  • joint or muscle pain
  • chest pain
  • change in sense of taste or smell
  • anxiety and/or low mood

Less common symptoms may include:

  • low-grade fever
  • headache
  • memory difficulties
  • confusion
  • muscle pain and weakness
  • stomach and digestion difficulties
  • rash
  • depression

If you have any of the following symptoms, immediately call triple zero (000) for an ambulance and tell the phone operator you've previously been diagnosed with COVID-19:

  • severe shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • severe chest pain or pressure
  • a new or returning fever
  • worsening ability to concentrate and increased confusion
  • difficulty waking up

The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (the RACGP) has also created a guide for patients on managing mild post COVID-19 symptoms. This includes advice on managing fatigue, easing muscle and joint pain, and managing a cough or any breathlessness.

CHECK YOUR SYMPTOMS — Use the Symptom Checker and find out if you need to seek medical help.

What is long COVID?

Most people with COVID-19 will recover completely within a few weeks. However, some people may keep experiencing symptoms for several weeks or months after their infection.

People who have a longer recovery period can experience:

  • ongoing symptoms in the medium term (from 4 to 12 weeks from first getting COVID-19)
  • longer term symptoms (from 12 weeks or more from first getting COVID-19). This is called ‘long COVID’ or post COVID-19 condition

Long COVID can affect nearly all parts of the body with multiple and varied symptoms. These symptoms can be persistent, but come and go over time and have a negative impact on daily life.

What are the symptoms of long COVID?

Long COVID symptoms can include:

  • extreme fatigue (tiredness)
  • shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain or tightness
  • cough
  • hoarse voice
  • problems with memory and concentration
  • changes to taste and smell
  • joint and muscle pain
  • problems sleeping
  • numbness or pins and needles
  • changes in mood (anxiety, depression or stress)
  • heart pounding or racing or heart palpitations
  • joint pain
  • muscle pain
  • rash
  • low-grade fever
  • reduced appetite and weight loss
  • difficulty going about everyday activities, such as work or chores

Long COVID can also show up as new chronic conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease and neurological conditions.

It’s important that you discuss any concerns you have with your doctor.

Long COVID is a new condition and health experts are still learning about it.

Who is at greater risk of long COVID?

Studies have shown that people are at higher risk of long COVID-19 if they:

  • have had severe illness during the acute COVID-19 illness phase including needing intensive care
  • have pre-existing chronic health conditions — for example, respiratory disease, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure , chronic cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, post-organ transplantation, or active cancer
  • are older
  • are female
  • are unvaccinated

How is long COVID treated?

There is no specific treatment for this condition, but you can speak with your GP for help.

Some states and territories — including the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria — have opened long COVID clinics in major cities to help people recover from ongoing symptoms. Your GP or medical specialist can advise if attending a long COVID clinic is right for you, and refer you to one if you need.

Long COVID and exercise

Ongoing COVID symptoms, like fatigue, may get worse after you exercise. This can be known as ‘crashing’ or ‘relapse’. This is described in scientific terms as ‘post-exertional malaise’ or PEM for short.

People with PEM typically feel worse for hours or days after doing something active or mental.

Recovery normally takes 24 hours or longer. PEM can affect your energy levels, concentration, sleep and memory. It can cause muscle and joint pain, and flu-like symptoms.

If you have any of the following symptoms, stop exercising immediately and see a doctor:

  • unexpected breathlessness
  • chest pain or palpitations — if you experience severe central crushing chest pain lasting more than 10 minutes, call triple zero (000)
  • signs of blood clotting, such as swollen calves

Resources and support

Long COVID help provides information and videos on long COVID in English and multiple languages.

Getting help for Long COVID from the Department of Health and Aged Care explains the symptoms of long COVID.

Managing post–COVID-19 symptoms from the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is a guide for how to manage mild post-COVID symptoms.

Related topics

Treating COVID-19

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People with a mild case of COVID-19 can treat their symptoms in a similar way to how they treat a seasonal flu. Here's how to relieve symptoms at home and how to monitor your symptoms.

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COVID-19 isolation and recovery

Learn about what happens after you’ve recovered from COVID-19, and when you can leave isolation and return to normal activities.

Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.

Last reviewed: November 2023

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RACGP - Post COVID 19 syndrome condition or long COVID

Reproduced with permission from The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners from: Allard N, Miller A, Morgan M, Chakraborty S. Post-COVID-19 syndrome/condition or long COVID: Persistent illness after acute SARS CoV-2 infection. Aust J Gen Pract 2022;51(12):952–57. doi: 10.31128/AJGP-05-22-6429. Available at

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