The pain typically worsens when you are lying down or bending over.
Heartburn that is mild and occasional can usually be managed with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. In more serious cases, other treatment may be needed.
What causes heartburn?
Normally, a ring of muscle at the end of the oesophagus (the tube connecting your mouth to your stomach) relaxes to let food in, and tightens to prevent stomach acid from escaping.
However, if the muscle relaxes when it shouldn’t, or is weak, stomach acid is able to rise up into the oesophagus where it can cause pain and irritation.
Common triggers for heartburn
Some people experience heartburn regardless of what they eat. Others find they only get it after eating certain foods or meals. Common triggers for heartburn include:
- large meals
- fatty or spicy foods
- coffee and cola drinks
- citrus foods
Other things that can increase your risk of heartburn are:
Looking after yourself
If you have heartburn, there are some lifestyle changes that may help prevent it, or at least manage the symptoms.
- eating smaller, more frequent meals instead of large meals
- avoiding any foods you know trigger heartburn
- avoiding lying down soon after a meal
- losing weight, if you are overweight
- stopping smoking, if you smoke.
You may also want to try over-the-counter medicines called antacids, which neutralise stomach acid. If you are pregnant, check with your doctor or pharmacist if these medications are safe for you to take.
When to see a doctor about heartburn or indigestion
If over-the-counter treatments don't work, or you rely on them often, see your doctor. Persistent heartburn may be a symptom of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), in which case you may need prescription medicines or, rarely, surgery.
The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners recommends that you discuss any medication you are taking for GORD or heartburn with your doctor or specialist to assess the possibility of reducing your dose or stopping the medication if safe to do so. For further information, visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website.
Read about other symptoms of GORD.
Last reviewed: July 2015