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Asbestos is now known to cause several serious illnesses.

Asbestos is now known to cause several serious illnesses.
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Asbestos was commonly used as a building material in Australia, mainly between the 1940s and the 1980s. It is now known to cause several serious illnesses which usually appear many years after exposure.

What is asbestos?

Asbestos is a group of minerals that are mined then processed. It is composed of very fine crystals that can be inhaled and penetrate the smallest of airways. They irritate lung tissue and cannot be cleared by the lungs.

Asbestos was widely used in building as insulation and fireproofing, and in textiles. Two out of three houses built between the 1940s and 1980s contain asbestos. Concerns about its toxicity were raised in Australia in the 1970s. Its use was phased out in the 1980s. In Australia homes built after 1990 are unlikely to contain asbestos and it was banned completely in 2003.

Who is at risk?

If you have worked with asbestos, or lived with someone who worked with asbestos, or played on piles of discarded asbestos as a child, or lived in an area where asbestos was mined, there is a chance you could develop an asbestos-related illness.

Illnesses caused by asbestos

Illnesses caused by asbestos include mesothelioma, asbestosis, lung cancer, pleural disease and other cancers.


Mesothelioma is a cancer of the covering of the lung (the pleura). The disease can take 20 to 40 years to develop, but once it begins it spreads rapidly. It is usually fatal within a year.


Asbestosis is a chronic irritation of the airways caused by asbestos fibres. The lungs become stiff and unable to expand. This causes difficulty breathing. The disease gradually worsens over years, even when exposure to asbestos is stopped.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer can develop in people who have breathed in asbestos fibres. This is more common in people who have smoked.

Pleural disease

Pleural disease is inflammation of the lining of the lung (the pleura). The disease causes stiffening of the lung and difficulty breathing.

Asbestos exposure also increases the risk of cancer of the larynx (the voicebox), ovaries and testes.

What to do?

If you think you have been in contact with asbestos, see your doctor.

If you are worried about asbestos in your home or in general, you can discuss your concern with Asbestoswise or the Asbestos Safety and Eradication Agency.

Fibrocement cladding can be tested to see if it contains asbestos. Contact the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA).

Last reviewed: October 2016

Need more information?

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Asbestosis is a fibrotic disease of the lungs caused by chronic exposure and inhalation of asbestos fibres. Asbestos is mixture of chemicals that occurs naturally as a fibre substance andwas widely used in the building industry for insulation, roofing and fireproofing. Asbestosis damages the connective tissuein the lungs, causing thelungs to become fibrous and stiff. Asbestos exposure can lead to other diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer.

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It is most often used to monitor progression or recurrence of a rare cancer called mesothelioma. The test may also be taken into consideration when planning further investigations of someone with a moderate likelihood of mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is a cancer that affects the membranes that surround the lungs, heart, and abdominal cavity. Most cases of mesothelioma are associated with asbestos exposure. It is not a screening test for asbestos exposure and is not used in children.

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