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Brain diseases, disorders and injuries

The brain and the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system and handles most of the body’s functions, such as movement, speech and the 5 senses. When the brain has a disease, disorder, or injury (also called neurological conditions), the damage can impact your daily life. Below, you can read about the different types of conditions.

Absence seizures

Absence seizures are a type of epilepsy that cause you to stare and lose awareness for a few seconds. Also called 'petit mal' or ‘silent’ seizures.

Acquired brain injury (ABI)

ABI is the result of damage to your brain, which may occur due to injury at any time during your life. Learn more here.


Agnosia is a condition caused by damage to parts of the brain. Symptoms include difficulty recognising objects, people, smells, flavours, tastes or so...

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease affects your brain function, memory and behaviour. Learn more about its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and progression.


Amnesia is loss of memory that is usually temporary but can sometimes be permanent. Learn more about its causes and ways to live with amnesia.


Aphasia is a brain condition that involves difficulty with language and speech. A speech pathologist can help people with aphasia. Learn more.

Brain aneurysm

Read about brain aneurysms — a bulge in an artery wall in your brain. If it bursts it can cause bleeding on the brain which needs immediate attention.

Brain tumours

A brain tumour is a growth of abnormal cells in the brain. Some are malignant (cancerous, and can spread) and others are benign (non-cancerous).


Concussion is a short-term loss of brain function following a head injury. Learn more about the causes, signs and symptoms of concussion.


Dementia affects a person’s thinking, behaviour and ability to perform everyday tasks. Discover the causes, symptoms, treatments and support services.


Dysarthria is when muscles used to breathe and speak are weakened or paralysed, slurring your speech. Learn about causes, symptoms and management.


Encephalitis is a serious brain condition usually caused by a virus. If you or your child may be affected, seek medical attention immediately.


An encephalopathy refers to any disturbance of the brain's functioning. Learn about symptoms, treatments and signs of a medical emergency.


Epilepsy is a long-term condition that affects 1 in 50 Australians. Learn more about the causes, how it is diagnosed and the types of seizures.

Gliomas in children

Glioma is a type of cancer that grows in the brain or spinal cord. Learn more about the types, symptoms and treatment, and where to get support.

Head injuries

Head injuries can be serious, even if they're not visible. Read about signs and symptoms, as severe head injuries always need to be seen by a doctor.

Huntington’s disease

Huntington's affects the nervous system and worsens over time. Symptoms include difficulty controlling limbs and cognitive and emotional changes.


Hydrocephalus is caused by a build-up of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. This fluid is essential, but too much can damage your brain.


Meningitis can be a life-threatening illness requiring urgent medical treatment. Learn more about meningitis, including the common symptoms.


Migraine is a very painful headaches condition that might come with 'aura' or nausea. Learn about migraine causes, symptoms treatment and prevention.

Motor neurone disease (MND)

Motor neurone disease is a condition that causes weakness in the muscles, leading eventually to paralysis. Learn about the symptoms and diagnosis.

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson’s disease occurs when there isn’t enough dopamine produced in the brain, which impacts movement, mood and other symptoms.


Seizures are due to abnormal electrical signals firing in the brain. There are many types, causes, triggers and treatments. Learn what to do here.


A stroke is when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted. Learn the 'FAST' test for stroke symptoms, which can save a person's life.

Tourette syndrome usually begins during childhood

Tourette syndrome

People with this syndrome make involuntary repetitive sounds and movements. Most don't need treatment, and relaxation exercises may reduce symptoms.

Younger onset dementia

People under 65 can develop younger onset dementia. Learn about planning, legal rights and respite care for people with early onset dementia.

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