Healthdirect Free Australian health advice you can count on.

Medical problem? Call 1800 022 222. If you need urgent medical help, call triple zero immediately

healthdirect Australia is a free service where you can talk to a nurse or doctor who can help you know what to do.

beginning of content

Bipolar disorder medication

3-minute read

Understanding bipolar disorder medication

Bipolar disorder is a serious, chronic mental health condition that involves having extreme mood swings. Someone with bipolar disorder can swing between periods of depression and periods of feeling constantly high, irritable, agitated or excited, which is known as mania or hypomania.

If you have bipolar disorder, treatment can help make the episodes of depression and mania shorter, easier to get through and less likely to happen.

Most people with bipolar disorder are treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Psychological treatment on its own is usually not enough. Medication plays a vital role and is used to:

  • treat episodes of depression
  • treat episodes of mania or hypomania
  • prevent these episodes from happening again

Types of bipolar medication

People with bipolar disorder often need to take a combination of medications. They work by correcting an imbalance in the chemicals in the brain.

Mood stabilisers

Mood stabilisers are medicines that treat or prevent mania by stopping mood swings. They include:

  • lithium, which is used as a long-term treatment
  • anticonvulsants such as sodium valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine


Antipsychotics, such as risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, asenapine and paliperidone, may be used if there are psychotic symptoms (i.e. hallucinations or delusions). They also help to stabilise mood, treating both mania and depression, and helping reduce the risk of further episodes.


If you have bipolar disorder and are going through an episode of depression or have suicidal thoughts, your doctor may prescribe antidepressants to help you recover. You will usually still need to be on a mood stabiliser.

Learn more about antidepressant medicines.

You and your doctor will work out which medications work best for you. Sometimes the first one isn’t the right one. It’s important to talk to your doctor and work with them to find the right one, and to take them as prescribed.

Important information about bipolar disorder medication

Bipolar medication can cause side effects in some people.

Side effects of antipsychotic medication include:

  • drowsiness
  • weight gain
  • dry mouth
  • problems with sexual function
  • low blood pressure
  • periods stopping

Side effects of lithium carbonate include:

  • shaking
  • muscle weakness
  • memory problems

Lithium carbonate can be very effective for bipolar disorder, but it can build up in the body and eventually cause harm to the thyroid, kidneys or central nervous system. If you are taking lithium carbonate, you will need regular blood tests to make sure you are taking the right level.

If you have too much lithium, it can be toxic. If this happens, it usually passes from the body about 2 days after you stop the treatment. Contact the doctor who prescribed the medication immediately if you are taking lithium carbonate and you experience:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • tiredness
  • difficulty concentrating
  • unsteadiness
  • increased thirst

For most people, the benefits of treatment outweigh the risks of being on medication. However, if you or someone you know is considering treatment, ask the treating doctor:

  • What are the benefits of bipolar disorder medication?
  • What are the risks of medication?
  • What are the side effects?

Also discuss what other medications are being taken as some medications can interact with bipolar medication. Never discontinue or adjust doses on your own without talking to your doctor.

Looking for more medicine information?

healthdirect’s medicines section allows you to search for medicines by brand name or active ingredient. It provides useful information about medicines such as their use, whether they are available on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and product recalls.

Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.

Last reviewed: March 2020

Back To Top

Need more information?

These trusted information partners have more on this topic.

Top results

Treatment of bipolar disorder | Your Health in Mind

Bipolar disorder is treated with medication, psychological treatment and lifestyle changes.

Read more on RANZCP - The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists website

Bipolar disorder | ReachOut Australia

Severe mood swings make normal day to day living feel impossible. But with the right treatment and support, living with bipolar disorder is manageable.

Read more on website

Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental health condition. People with bipolar tend to experience extreme moods – both low (depressed), and high or excited (manic).

Read more on Beyond Blue website

Information about Bipolar Disorder - Black Dog Institute

Major shifts and changes in mood can be signs of bipolar disorder. This information and resource can help you understand more about the condition.

Read more on Black Dog Institute website

Busting the myths about Bipolar disorder - The SANE Blog

There are lots of myths about Bipolar disorder. Unfortunately many invite stigma towards people living with Bipolar, potentially limiting the support, understanding and treatment they receive. Because of this it’s important to know the facts. Here’s

Read more on SANE Australia website

Treatments for mental illness

Is mental illness treatable? Yes, mental illness can be treated. This means that many people who have a mental illness, and are treated, recover well...

Read more on SANE Australia website

What’s the difference between bipolar I and II? - The SANE Blog

On first impression bipolar disorder is easy to understand. It’s a disorder where a person experiences extreme mood changes, highs and lows, with periods of normality in between. But, when we look further into the disorder, or we hear people talk abo

Read more on SANE Australia website

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

ECT is a treatment which involves passing a carefully controlled electrical current through the brain. The current affects the brain’s electrical acti...

Read more on SANE Australia website

Antidepressant Medication

The best treatment for depression may include psychological treatment, medication, and support in the community. While some people may only need psychological, ‘talking’ treatment, this Factsheet answers commonlyasked questions about antidepressant medication. How do antidepressant medications help?

Read more on Mi Networks website

Antidepressant medication

The best treatment for depression may include psychological treatment, medication, and support in the community. While some people may only need psych...

Read more on SANE Australia website

Healthdirect 24hr 7 days a week hotline

24 hour health advice you can count on

1800 022 222

Government Accredited with over 140 information partners

We are a government-funded service, providing quality, approved health information and advice

Australian Government, health department logo ACT Government logo New South Wales government, health department logo Northen Territory Government logo Government of South Australia, health department logo Tasmanian government logo Victorian government logo Government of Western Australia, health department logo