Healthdirect Free Australian health advice you can count on.

Medical problem? Call 1800 022 222. If you need urgent medical help, call triple zero immediately

healthdirect Australia is a free service where you can talk to a nurse or doctor who can help you know what to do.

beginning of content

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

4-minute read

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) describes the symptoms that occur around the time of your period.

Usually in the few days before you start bleeding, and finishing during your period. PMS is also known as premenstrual tension (PMT) – they mean the same thing.

Premenstrual syndrome symptoms

There are three main types of symptoms; physical, psychological, and emotional.

Physical symptoms can include:

Psychological and emotional symptoms can include:

  • irritability
  • depression
  • mood swings
  • anxiety/nervous tension
  • having a short temper
  • lack of confidence and feeling you can't cope
  • heightened emotions (such as crying for no reason)
  • feeling aggressive
  • having poor concentration
  • difficulty sleeping
  • feeling more tired than usual
  • lower libido

Many women experience premenstrual symptoms, especially those between their 20s and 40s. PMS often improves after the menopause.

Although the causes of PMS are unknown, it is thought to be linked to changing hormone levels.

Looking after yourself

There are several treatments available to help women manage symptoms of PMS. If your symptoms are severe you should discuss treatment options (including hormone therapy) with your doctor.

Your diet and lifestyle

There are several ways to reduce your symptoms of PMS by eating and drinking the right things. You could:

  • Eat little and often. Eating smaller meals throughout the day can help avoid that bloated feeling. Your stomach will feel comfortably full throughout the day. It’s better than waiting until you feel hungry and eating large meals that may fill you up too much.
  • Avoid foods that are high in salt as salt retains fluid, which can make you feel bloated.
  • Drink water and avoid alcohol and caffeine as these also cause bloating, mood swings, headaches and tiredness.
  • Eat foods such as fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. These contain complex carbohydrates which release energy slowly so you don’t feel so tired or hungry.
  • Eat plenty of vitamin-rich food, such as fresh fruit and vegetables, as these can ease symptoms and give the body an overall boost.
  • Maintain your weight at a healthy level.
  • Smoking or breathing in other people’s smoke can make symptoms worse. Try to avoid being around people who are smoking. If you smoke, try to cut down or quit. Visit healthdirect for advice on quitting smoking.


Exercise is a great way to improve your mood if PMS makes you feel tired, angry, depressed or emotional. Exercising raises the level of a chemical called serotonin, which makes us feel happier.

It is recommended that adults do at least half an hour (30 minutes) of exercise five times a week. It will not only improve the way you feel when you have PMS, it will also help prevent the onset of conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

Exercises such as pilates, yoga and other stretching techniques, can help reduce your feelings of stress and tension. They can also increase your circulation and flexibility, help ease cramps, and improve sleep patterns.

When you do any type of exercise, it is important that you listen to your body. If you feel any discomfort or pain you should stop immediately and rest. Never continue if you feel dizzy or faint as you could hurt yourself. Remember to drink plenty of water to replace any fluids that are lost through sweating.

Vitamins and minerals

If you are considering taking vitamin and mineral supplements, you are advised to speak with your doctor or pharmacist first. The doctor or pharmacist will want to check that any condition you may have or medicine you are taking will not interact with the supplements. They may also suggest alternative supplements or techniques to ease symptoms.

Not sure what to do next?

If you are still concerned about your premenstrual syndrome (PMS), why not use healthdirect’s online Symptom Checker to get advice on when to seek medical attention.

The Symptom Checker guides you to the next appropriate healthcare steps, whether it’s self care, talking to a health professional, going to a hospital or calling triple zero (000).

Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.

Last reviewed: October 2017

Need more information?

These trusted information partners have more on this topic.

Top results

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) - Better Health Channel

Most menstruating women have some form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Read more on Better Health Channel website

Menstrual Cycle and Sleep

Does sleep quality change across the menstrual cycle in women? Up to 7 in 10 women say that their sleep changes just before their period. The most common time for this is 3 to 6 days before having the period.Are sleeping problems a common part of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)? Yes. Most women with menstrual cycle rel

Read more on Sleep Health Foundation website

Girls with autism: preparing for periods | Raising Children Network

Girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) get their periods just like typically developing girls. Your daughter will need your help to manage this change.

Read more on website


Contraception is the use of hormones, devices or surgery to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant. It allows couples to choose if and when they want to have a baby.

Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website

Healthdirect 24hr 7 days a week hotline

24 hour health advice you can count on

1800 022 222

Government Accredited with over 140 information partners

We are a government-funded service, providing quality, approved health information and advice

Australian Government, health department logo ACT Government logo New South Wales government, health department logo Northen Territory Government logo Government of South Australia, health department logo Tasmanian government logo Government of Western Australia, health department logo