What is polio?
Polio (also known as poliomyelitis) is a highly contagious viral infection that can cause paralysis and death. Australia is now polio-free, but immunisation is still important to prevent cases of polio from coming back.
What are the symptoms of polio?
Most people who become infected with the polio virus do not become ill and are not aware that they have the infection.
A minority of people infected with the polio virus have flu-like symptoms, which can last for up to 10 days, including:
- nausea and vomiting
- sore throat
- pain or stiffness in the back, neck, arms or legs
- weak or tender muscles
Fewer than 1 in every 100 people who become infected develop severe muscle weakness, known as acute flaccid paralysis, acute poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis. This can affect muscles in the arms, legs, head and neck, and the diaphragm, a chest muscle vital for breathing. Although most people recover completely, others develop irreversible paralysis, and some die.
Some people develop post-polio syndrome, which is when muscle weakness returns many years after the original infection.
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How does polio spread?
The polio virus is highly contagious. It is spread through infected saliva or faeces (poo), and can spread through contaminated food and water. In parts of the world with poor sanitation, this can occur through untreated sewage.
The virus can be in faeces for up to 35 days before the person infected shows any symptoms, and it can stay in their faeces for up to 6 more weeks once symptoms have appeared. Around 19 out of every 20 infected people have no symptoms. This means the polio virus can infect thousands of people before it is noticed.
Who is at risk from polio?
Polio has been eradicated in most of the world, although there are still a few cases in Afghanistan and Pakistan. People who are not immune to the polio virus may become infected if they travel to areas with polio. They may also take the infection with them to polio-free countries, including Australia, and could potentially infect others.
Children under 5 and young adults are most at risk, although anyone can get polio.
If you plan to travel to an area where polio occurs, or care for people with polio, ask your doctor about precautions. Even if you have been vaccinated, you may need a booster dose to ensure you are immune.
Read the Recommendations for Australian travellers from the Department of Health for more information.
Polio in Australia
Polio used to affect significant numbers of people and caused some deaths. Australia began mass vaccination against polio in 1956, and the country's last polio epidemic was in 1961-62. Australia was officially declared polio-free in 2000.
Today, many people who have survived polio experience problems known as the 'late effects' of polio, or post-polio syndrome. Read more here about the late effects of polio.
How is polio diagnosed?
If you have symptoms of polio, see a doctor immediately.
If your doctor suspects polio based on your symptoms, you will be asked if you have travelled to a country where people still have polio or contacted someone who has.
Your doctor will confirm a polio diagnosis by taking a sample from the throat, stool (poo) or cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
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How is polio treated?
Treatment aims to help people with polio recover and to prevent complications. Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment may include:
- medicines for pain relief or to reduce muscle spasm
- intensive care in hospital, including help with breathing
- physiotherapy to aid recovery from paralysis
Can polio be prevented?
Polio can only be prevented by immunisation. Australia's National Immunisation Program provides children with a series of free polio vaccinations, which are given by injection.
Adults who travel to countries with polio, or look after patients with polio, should have a booster every 10 years.
If you were not vaccinated against polio as a child, or if you are not sure whether you are vaccinated, talk to your doctor about whether you need a catch-up vaccine.
Vaccination is your best protection against polio. This table explains how the vaccine is given, who should get it, and whether it is on the National Immunisation Program Schedule. Some diseases can be prevented with different vaccines, so talk to your doctor about which one is appropriate for you.
What age is it recommended?
2, 4 and 6 months and 4 years.
Every 10 years for adults at higher risk of polio, or who have never been vaccinated against polio.
How many doses are required?
4 doses, plus catch-up doses if you weren’t vaccinated at the recommended times.
How is it administered?
Is it free?
Free for children at 2, 4 and 6 months and 4 years.
Free for people under 20 years old, refugees and other humanitarian entrants of any age.
For everyone else, there is a cost for this vaccine.
Find out more on the Department of Health website and the National Immunisation Program Schedule, and ask your doctor if you are eligible for additional free vaccines based on your situation or location.
Common side effects
The vaccine is very safe. Side effects may include pain, redness and hardness where the needle went in, fever, crying and decreased appetite in children.
Resources and support
- If you need to know more about polio, or need advice on what to do next, call healthdirect on 1800 022 222 to speak with a registered nurse, 24 hours, 7 days a week (known as NURSE-ON-CALL in Victoria).
- Read more here about the National Immunisation Program's polio immunisation service.
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Last reviewed: April 2021