Early childhood risk factors include:
- insensitive parenting
- over-praising and excessive pampering - when parents focus intensely on a particular talent or the physical appearance of their child as a result of their own self-esteem issues
- unpredictable or negligent care
- excessive criticism
- extremely high expectations
Other possible factors include:
- abnormalities in the genes that affect the connection between the brain and behaviour
- being over-sensitive
Although there is no one answer to the question of what causes NPD, professionals agree that the sooner treatment begins, the better a person's chance for an improved quality of life.
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Last reviewed: December 2018