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Woman with dental abscess

Woman with dental abscess
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Abscesses

2-minute read

Abscesses can develop just about anywhere in the body and can be painful. Often treatment is needed to heal an abscess and to stop infection spreading, so see your doctor if you think you might have an abscess.

What is an abscess?

An abscess is a collection of pus that builds up under the skin, in an organ or between your organs. It is often painful. If it is under the skin, it can also be called a boil.

Causes of abscesses

Abscesses usually develop when you have a bacterial infection that your immune system tries to contain. In the process of fighting the infection, pus (a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of bacteria and dead cells) is produced.

Other causes include non-bacterial infections, ingrown hairs, or a blocked gland or duct.

Types of abscesses

There are many different types of abscesses, including:

  • skin abscesses or boils - often affecting the face, throat, armpits or groin
  • dental abscesses - inside the tooth or gum
  • pilonidal abscesses or cysts - in the crease of the buttocks
  • anal or anorectal abscesses - in or around the anus
  • breast abscesses - can develop if mastitis is not treated quickly
  • vaginal abscesses also called Bartholin's cysts

Abscesses can also develop in other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidney, or other organs, usually as a complication of an existing medical condition.

Symptoms of abscesses

The symptoms of an abscess depend on where it develops.

If you have an abscess under the skin or in the mouth, symptoms may include swelling and redness in the area. As pus builds up, it may cause pain. You may also have swollen glands (lymph nodes) and a fever.

If you have an internal abscess, you may have pain in the affected area, fever, and generally feel unwell. Imaging tests such as ultrasound may be needed to find the problem.

Treatment and prevention of abscesses

Small abscesses can sometimes burst and heal on their own. However, larger or internal abscesses need to be drained by a doctor (sometimes involving surgery). You may also need to take antibiotics.

Once an abscess has drained, it usually heals quickly and doesn't cause long-term consequences.

To help prevent abscesses:

  • keep your skin clean and healthy
  • avoid scratches or nicks to your skin
  • eat healthily to build your immune system and keep a healthy weight.
  • avoid smoking

Last reviewed: April 2018

Need more information?

These trusted information partners have more on this topic.

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Abscesses & boils in children & teens | Raising Children Network

An abscess or boil is a build-up of pus in the skin. The skin looks red and swollen and feels warm and tender. If a boil doesnt burst by itself, see a GP.

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Boils - myDr.com.au

Boils or skin abscesses are inflamed and pus-filled areas of skin that look like oversized pimples. Find out about symptoms, treatment and prevention.

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Boils - Better Health Channel

Some areas of the body are more susceptible to boils, including the face, throat, armpits, groin and buttocks.

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Abscesses | myVMC

Medical information about abscesses, abscess peritonsillar, anal abscess, abscess perirectal, tooth abscess, abscess on buttocks and pus in abscess.

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Lung abscess (pulmonary abscess) information | myVMC

Lung or pulmonary abscess refers to necrosis (death) of lung tissue which typically occurs following bacterial pneumonia, causing cough and fever.

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Breast abscess | Australian Breastfeeding Association

When mastitis is not treated promptly, a breast abscess can form. This may require the mother to go to hospital and have the abscess surgically drained. In some cases, the mother can avoid hospital but, over several days, her medical adviser will drain the abscess using a syringe. This does not mean the end of breastfeeding. However, if the drain in the wound is close to the nipple, the baby may not be able to attach to that side for a while.

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Anorectal fistula and absess information | myVMC

An abscess is a localised collection of pus. It can occur near the anus close under the skin, or deeper, adjacent to the rectum. It may cause a fistula.

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Kids' Health - Topics - Boils

Boils are infections just under the top layer of the skin

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Empyema (pleural effusion, fluid in lungs) information | myVMC

Empyema is a complication of pneumonia in which pus collects between the two pleura which line the lungs.

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Emergency dental | Health and wellbeing | Queensland Government

What to do when a dental emergency occurs, including knocked out teeth, toothache, chips, fractures and cracks, bitten lips / cheeks, abscesses and swelling, trauma and bleeding, and jaw pain.

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