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Neuroendocrine cancers

4-minute read

What are neuroendocrine cancers?

Neuroendocrine cancers are a complex, rare group of cancers that start in what is known as the neuroendocrine system — the appendix, bowel, pancreas, lungs, stomach, ovaries, kidneys or testicles. These tumours are also known as carcinoids (cancer like), a term that is being phased out.

Neuroendocrine cancers can be slow growing or more aggressive. They most commonly form in the digestive system and the lungs.

What are the symptoms of neuroendocrine cancers?

Many neuroendocrine cancers do not cause symptoms. The symptoms occur if and when the tumour releases certain chemicals into your bloodstream. This is called carcinoid syndrome. These symptoms, which tend to come and go, might be mild or they might be very troublesome. They include:

  • skin flushing — your face and chest might feel hot, making the skin turn pink, red or purple, for anywhere between a few minutes and a few hours
  • skin lesions — purplish areas of small spiderlike veins on your face
  • diarrhoea — it can be severe, frequent and watery, sometimes with cramps
  • difficulty breathing, wheezing or shortness of breath
  • a rapid heartbeat
  • dizziness when you stand up or bend down because of low blood pressure

Sometimes people with a neuroendocrine cancer have a particularly bad episode of carcinoid syndrome triggered by stress, general anaesthetic or certain treatments. This is called a 'carcinoid crisis'.

Call triple zero (000) for an ambulance, or go immediately to your nearest hospital emergency department if you are suffering from severe episodes of blushing, find it really difficult to breathe, or you are feeling very confused.

How are neuroendocrine cancers diagnosed?

If your doctor suspects you have a neuroendocrine cancer, they will:

  • do a physical examination
  • ask you some questions about your symptoms
  • request urine tests to check for high levels of serotonin, which is commonly secreted by neuroendocrine cancers
  • request blood tests to check for high levels of the protein chromogranin A, which is commonly secreted by neuroendocrine cancers

You might have x-rays or an ultrasound or other scan to identify the site of the tumour, and to check whether it has spread.

If the test results confirm that you have a neuroendocrine cancer, you can find out more from your doctor. Questions you should ask the doctor include:

  • Where are the tumours that are causing my neuroendocrine cancer?
  • What treatment do you recommend?
  • What can I do to control my symptoms?
  • Is there anything I should avoid eating or drinking?
  • Are there any other signs or symptoms that I should watch out for?

ASK YOUR DOCTOR — Preparing for an appointment? Use the Question Builder for general tips on what to ask your GP or specialist.

How are neuroendocrine cancers treated?

Some people receive no treatment for a neuroendocrine cancer, especially if it is small and causing them no problems. But your doctors might:

  • recommend surgery, chemotherapy or radiation, either alone or in combination
  • give you some medications to control your most bothersome symptoms
  • suggest changes to the food you eat and drink — alcohol, nuts, cheese, spicy food and hot liquids can all trigger carcinoid symptoms in people who have the tumour

Living with neuroendocrine cancer

It may have taken you a while to find out that the symptoms you have been aware of for some time are connected. You may also need some time to adjust to this news.

It might be worth thinking about adding mind-body techniques such as relaxation, meditation, art therapy or mindfulness to help you manage your health.

It may also be worth seeing a dietitian who can help you manage any necessary changes to your diet.

FIND A DIETITIAN — The Service Finder can help you find doctors, pharmacies, hospitals and other health services.

Resources and support

For general information about neuroendocrine cancers, visit the Cancer Council Victoria website.

For local support groups, see the NeuroEndocrine Cancer Australia website.

For an international online support and discussion group for carcinoid cancer and carcinoid syndrome, visit the US Carcinoid Cancer Foundation website.

Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.

Last reviewed: April 2021


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Top results

Carcinoid (Neuroendocrine) Tumours | Cancer Council Victoria

A Carcinoid is a tumour of the neuroendocrine system, which is a series of glands that produce hormones that are carried in the bloodstream.

Read more on Cancer Council Victoria website

What are Neuroendocrine Cancers?​ - NeuroEndocrine Cancer Australia

Like all cancers, Neuroendocrine Cancers develop when these neuroendocrine cells undergo changes, causing them to divide uncontrollably and grow into a tumour (an abnormal tissue mass).

Read more on NeuroEndocrine Cancer Australia website

I Am A Patient - NeuroEndocrine Cancer Australia

Being diagnosed with neuroendocrine (sometimes called NETs or Carcinoid) cancer, can be even more confusing and daunting due to the lack of information and resources readily available

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Rare Cancers Australia - Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumours

These tumours start in the appendix and display features of both a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) and a more aggressive form of cancer called an adenocarcinoma.

Read more on Rare Cancers Australia website

Rare Cancers Australia - Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumour

A gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Rare Cancers Australia - Carcinoid Tumours - Child

Carcinoid tumours usually form in the lining of the stomach or intestines, but they can form in other organs, such as the lungs or liver.

Read more on Rare Cancers Australia website

Chromogranin A - Lab Tests Online AU

To help diagnose and monitor and other tumours When you have symptoms suggestive of a carcinoid tumour, such as flushing, diarrhoea, and/or wheezing; when your healthcare provider thinks that you may have a carcinoid or other neuroendocrine tumour A blood sample drawn from a vein in your arm Fasting may be required; follow any instructions from your healthcare provider or laboratory Chromogranin A (CgA) is a released from cells

Read more on Lab Tests Online AU website

Fact Sheets - NeuroEndocrine Cancer Australia

Should you require fact sheets in another language please click through to the International Neuroendocrine Cancer Alliance (INCA) website fact sheet area for Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, German, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Russian and Spanish versions

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