Healthdirect Free Australian health advice you can count on.

Medical problem? Call 1800 022 222. If you need urgent medical help, call triple zero immediately

healthdirect Australia is a free service where you can talk to a nurse or doctor who can help you know what to do.

beginning of content

Dissociative identity disorder

4-minute read

What is dissociative identity disorder?

Dissociative identity disorder is a psychological condition where disturbance to a person’s sense of identity causes them to feel or be observed by others to have 2 or more separate personalities. It was previously known as ‘multiple personality disorder’.

Dissociative identity disorder is a type of dissociative disorder — where there is a disconnect between your thoughts, memories and feelings and sense of who you are.

Dissociative identity disorder is usually long-term and is a response to extreme trauma.

Dissociative identity disorder may be incorrectly mixed up with schizophrenia. While they are both mental health disorders, schizophrenia does not feature multiple or ‘split’ personalities, but has other symptoms like delusions and hallucinations.

What are the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder?

A person with dissociative identity disorder can go through dramatic changes in behaviour and speech patterns from one occasion to the next.

The person switches from identity to identity, or feels the presence of 2 or more people living inside their head. Each identity may have its own name and characteristics such as voice, expressions and mannerisms. The main characteristics of dissociative identity disorder are:

  • A disruption of identity, where the person has 2 or more distinct personality states. This is different to having an imaginary friend, which is not a sign of a mental health problem. It is also different to ‘possession’ by a spirit or entity in some cultures or religions, which is not considered a disorder.
  • A change in identity that involves altered behaviours, emotions, thoughts, memories and perceptions — these may be observed by others or felt by the person.
  • Repeated and excessive gaps in memory (amnesia) for everyday events, important personal information, large portions of childhood or traumatic events. The person may not be able to recall memories or people they have met from when they were in another personality state.

CHECK YOUR SYMPTOMS — Use the Symptom Checker and find out if you need to seek medical help.

What other disorders may people with dissociative identity disorder have?

People with dissociative identity disorder may also have other mental illnesses such as:

They may also self-harm, feel suicidal or have a substance abuse disorder.

What causes dissociative identity disorder?

The main cause of dissociative identity disorder is severe and repeated trauma in childhood. This may include chronic severe physical or sexual abuse or wartime situations.

The trauma triggers a person to disconnect and dissociate from their life, perhaps as a protective mechanism to help them cope.

How is dissociative identity disorder diagnosed?

If you or someone you care for has symptoms that could suggest dissociative identity disorder, it is best to see a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist with experience of this condition. They will want to talk to you, or the person with the symptoms, to understand what is going on. Your GP should be able to refer you to a suitable mental health professional.

There is no single test or symptom that makes the diagnosis clear and simple. Dissociative identity disorder has some symptoms in common with some other mental health disorders, including borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

FIND A HEALTH SERVICE — The Service Finder can help you find doctors, pharmacies, hospitals and other health services.

ASK YOUR DOCTOR — Preparing for an appointment? Use the Question Builder for general tips on what to ask your GP or specialist.

How is dissociative identity disorder treated?

The main form of treatment for dissociative identity disorder is long-term psychotherapy. This usually involves frequent and regular sessions with a therapist for a number of years. This approach takes the person through several stages of treatment. The aim is to improve symptoms and functioning, with reductions in dissociation, distress, self-harm and suicidal thoughts.

Many people with dissociative identity disorder will also have other mental disorders such as anxiety and depression. There is no medicine specifically for dissociative identity disorder, though these other mental health disorders are often treated with medicine.

Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.

Last reviewed: February 2022

Back To Top

Need more information?

These trusted information partners have more on this topic.

Top results

Dissociation and dissociative disorders - Better Health Channel

Dissociation is a mental process where a person disconnects from their thoughts, feelings, memories or sense of identity.

Read more on Better Health Channel website

Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

People with dissociative identity disorder (DID) experience two or more distinct identities called ‘alters.’ DID is usually a way of coping with traum...

Read more on SANE Australia website

What does it mean to have Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)?

Dissociation involves a feeling of disconnection from one’s thoughts, body, feelings, memories or identity. Learn more about Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).

Read more on website

Narcissistic personality disorder - Finding North

What is narcissistic personality disorder, what are the signs and symptoms, and what treatments are available for it?

Read more on Finding North website

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)

Quick facts Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a complex and long-term mental health issue.   People living with NPD may have a stro...

Read more on SANE Australia website

What is Avoidant Personality Disorder?

Read more on Project Air Strategy website

What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Read more on Project Air Strategy website

Antisocial Personality Disorder - WayAhead

Read more on WayAhead Mental Health Association NSW website

Personality disorders | ReachOut Australia

People with personality disorders tend to think and behave more extremely than those around them, and find it difficult to adapt to or change their views and feelings.

Read more on website

Personality disorders | Head to Health

If your thoughts and actions seem rigid to the point where you have trouble functioning day to day, you may have a personality disorder.

Read more on Head to Health website

Healthdirect 24hr 7 days a week hotline

24 hour health advice you can count on

1800 022 222

Government Accredited with over 140 information partners

We are a government-funded service, providing quality, approved health information and advice

Australian Government, health department logo ACT Government logo New South Wales government, health department logo Northen Territory Government logo Queensland Government logo Government of South Australia, health department logo Tasmanian government logo Victorian government logo Government of Western Australia, health department logo

Healthdirect Australia acknowledges the Traditional Owners of Country throughout Australia and their continuing connection to land, sea and community. We pay our respects to the Traditional Owners and to Elders both past and present.