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Local anaesthesia is commonly used in dental procedures

Local anaesthesia is commonly used in dental procedures
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Local anaesthetic

A local anaesthetic is a type of medicine used to temporarily numb a part of your body. Unlike a general anaesthetic, local anaesthetics do not cause the loss of consciousness. When a local anaesthetic takes effect you will feel no pain, but may still sense pressure or movement.

How local anaesthetic works

A local anaesthetic works by blocking the nerves from the affected part of your body, so that pain signals cannot be transmitted to your brain. The numbing effect usually occurs within minutes and may last for a few hours.

Types and uses of local anaesthetic

A local anaesthetic is usually the choice for surgery on small areas of your body, such as minor skin surgery or the extraction of a wisdom tooth. It may also be used with a general anaesthetic to improve pain relief after surgery.

Topical anaesthetic

Topical anaesthetics are available as liquids, creams or ointments, and are used on the surface of the body. For instance, some types of eye surgery can be performed using eye drops containing local anaesthetic. Some topical anaesthetics are available over-the-counter.

Epidural and spinal anaesthesia

Epidural and spinal anaesthetics are often used to stop pain during labour or caesarean sections. An epidural block and a spinal block both involve the injection of local anaesthetic into the spine.

Nerve block

A nerve block involves injecting local anaesthetic around a cluster of nerves that supply a particular part of the body, such as the arm or the leg. These numb a large area. Nerve blocks may be used during and after surgery, for example on the hip or knee.

Preparing for a local anaesthetic

All anaesthetics have risks so talk to your doctor beforehand about your options. Discuss any medical conditions or allergies you have. You can also ask about how to manage the pain after the local anaesthetic has worn off.

Last reviewed: December 2017

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Labour is painful, so it' important to learn about all the ways that you can relieve the pain. It's also helpful for whoever is going to be with you during your labour to know about the different options, as well as how they can support you.

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Duration of Anaesthesia

How long will the local anaesthetic effect last? This depends on the type of local anaesthetic used and the region of the body into which it is injected.

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An epidural is a procedure where an anaesthetic (a drug that gives either partial or total loss of sensation) is injected into the small space in your back near your spinal cord by a specialist anaesthetist

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Labour is painful, so it' important to learn about all the ways that you can relieve the pain. Epidural is a type of local anaesthetic. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Choose one that suits you.

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Epidurals for pain relief in labour | Cochrane

Pain relief is important for women in labour. Pharmacological methods of pain relief include inhalation of nitrous oxide, injection of opioids and regional analgesia with an epidural for a central nerve block. Epidurals are widely used for pain relief in labour and involve an injection of a local anaesthetic into the lower region of the spine close to the nerves that transmit pain. Epidural solutions are given by bolus injection, continuous infusion or using a patient-controlled pump. Lower concentrations of local anaesthetic are needed when they are given together with an opiate, allowing women to maintain the ability to move around during labour and to bear down. Epidural analgesia may sometimes give inadequate analgesia, which may be due to non-uniform spread of local anaesthetic. Combined spinal-epidural involves a single injection of local anaesthetic or opiate into the cerebral spinal fluid for fast onset of pain relief as well as insertion of the epidural catheter for continuing pain relief. Side effects such as itchiness, drowsiness, shivering and fever have been reported and rare but potentially severe adverse effects of epidural analgesia do occur.

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Epidurals and breastfeeding | Australian Breastfeeding Association

How does an epidural work?With an epidural, a small plastic tube is inserted between the bones of your spine, into the space around your spinal cord. A combination of drugs is given through the tube. A local anaesthetic blocks nerves in the spinal cord that transmit pain signals and an opiate provides further pain relief.

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