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Source references for surgical procedure information

This surgical procedure information has been licensed from EIDO Healthcare Australia (EIDO). It has been developed by qualified and practising consultant surgeons and physicians.

EIDO’s guidelines ensure all information is supported by research of a consistently high standard. Some information, such as risk and complication statistics, is taken from global studies and/or databases. Please ask your surgeon or doctor for more information about the risks that are specific to you.

EIDO's information is endorsed by the Australian Patients Association (APA). The APA is an independent, not-for-profit organisation dedicated to championing and protecting the rights and interests of all patients in Australia.

Details of the evidence used to support this resource are available on request. Please email

Last reviewed: October 2021

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