Colic is excessive, frequent crying in a baby who appears to be otherwise healthy and well fed. Colic is very common, affecting about 1 in 5 babies, but it is still poorly understood.
Crying is normal in babies. At 6 to 8 weeks, babies normally cry for 2 to 3 hours a day. But babies with colic cry inconsolably for more than 3 hours on more than 3 days of the week. The crying is often worse in the evenings.
Colic usually begins within the first few weeks of life and peaks at around 6 to 8 weeks. It often stops by the time the baby is 4 months old, and by 6 months at the latest.
You may also notice that your baby’s face becomes flushed, and they may clench their fists, draw their knees up to their tummy, or arch their back.
If your baby has colic, they may appear to be in distress. However, the crying outbursts are not harmful and your baby will continue to feed and gain weight normally. There is no clear evidence that colic has any long-term effects on a baby’s health.
Seeing your doctor
Babies with colic usually don’t have any underlying medical condition. However, you should see your doctor if your baby cries excessively. This is so your doctor can rule out conditions that may be causing your baby’s crying, such as eczema or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). GORD is a condition where stomach acid moves back out of the stomach and into the oesophagus (food pipe).
It's also important to see your doctor or talk to a child health nurse if you are worried, you think you can’t cope or you feel like you might hurt your baby. Accept help so you can have a break when you need it. Never shake your baby.
If no other cause of your baby’s symptoms can be found, a diagnosis of colic can be made (although this is simply a term used to describe a baby that cries a lot). Your doctor can advise you about the things you can do to help your baby, including what treatments are available.
When to call your doctor immediately
A number of signs and symptoms may suggest that your baby is more seriously ill. It is recommended that you contact your doctor immediately if your baby:
- has a weak, high-pitched continuous cry
- seems floppy when you pick them up
- takes less than a half of their usual feeds
- passes less urine than usual
- vomits green fluid
- passes blood in their stools
- has a fever such as 38°C or above (if they’re less than 3 months old) or 39°C or above (if they’re 3 to 6 months old)
- has a bulging fontanelle (the soft spot at the top of a baby’s head)
- has a fit (seizure)
- turns blue, blotchy or very pale
- has a stiff neck
- has breathing problems, such as breathing quickly or grunting while breathing
- has a spotty, purple-red rash anywhere on their body (this could be a sign of meningitis)
- has a seizure (fit)
None of the above symptoms is caused by colic. If you can’t get hold of your doctor, call healthdirect on 1800 022 222 for advice (known as NURSE-ON-CALL in Victoria).
What causes colic?
The cause or causes of colic are unknown, but a number of theories have been suggested. These include indigestion, trapped wind or a temporary gut sensitivity to certain proteins and sugars found in breast milk and formula milk.
However, there is little solid evidence to support these theories.
Colic occurs equally in boys and girls, and in babies who are breastfed or bottle-fed. Colic is thought to be more common in babies whose mothers are smokers or who smoked while they were pregnant but the evidence is not conclusive.
Comforting your baby
There is no ‘best’ way to comfort your baby or reduce the symptoms of colic. Different babies respond to different methods, so you may have to see what works best for you. Remember your baby is not unwell or in pain. It is not your fault.
The following suggestions may help:
- Hold your baby during a crying episode, and wrap them snugly in a blanket or baby sling.
- Keep calm and talk gently to your baby.
- Check your baby doesn’t need a feed or a nappy change.
- Develop a regular daily pattern of feeds and sleeps.
- Don’t overstimulate your baby.
- Darken the room for daytime naps.
- Try soothing techniques such as baby massage, gentle rocking or patting, or a warm bath.
- Offer a dummy.
- Try to soothe your baby before they become too worked up.
- Try not to startle your baby, e.g. with quick movements.
- Check formula is being made up correctly, if you’re using it.
- Talk to a doctor or other health professional.
There is no evidence that gripe water, a product available over the counter, or other commercially available colic treatments can improve colic in babies. These aren’t recommended as a way to deal with colic because they don’t work and/or haven’t been thoroughly tested in young babies.
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Last reviewed: September 2020