Ocular surface burns vary in severity from mild and self-limiting to devastating injuries characterised by failure of regeneration of the ocular surface, leading to blindness and disfigurement. The historical use of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) to treat eye burns during the acute phase has re-emerged in recent years, although its precise effects on the healing process have not been proven by randomised controlled trials (RCTs). One RCT conducted in India included a subset of patients who fulfilled the criteria for analysis in this review. The participants included 68 men and women of all ages with chemical or thermal burns to the ocular surface, who were randomised to treatment with conventional medical therapy alone or to medical therapy and AMT in the first seven days after injury. Conventional medical therapy included topical steroids, antibiotics, sodium ascorbate, sodium citrate, tear substitutes and cycloplegic drops, and oral vitamin C. Pressure-lowering drops and/or oral acetazolamide were prescribed if required. Data from the RCT were analysed to compare corneal wound closure rates by the 21st day after the injury and visual outcomes at final follow-up. The burns were classified as moderate or severe. In the moderate category, the AMT group had a higher proportion of eyes with complete epithelial closure by day 21 (not statistically significant) and significantly better visual acuity at final follow-up. There was a high risk of bias resulting from the uneven characteristics of the control and treatment eyes at presentation and from the failure to mask personnel and outcome assessors involved in the study. This reduced confidence in the study findings.